Autism and radioactivity.

In a previous post, I talked about mounting genetic damage in each generation due to man-caused radioactivity in the environment. The article linked from the graphic shows that mercury increases DNA damage from radiation. So what we have is mercury from generations of vaccinated parents interacting with and potentiating the radiation damage of generations of radiation-exposed parents. Every generation, it takes less mercury to cause disease.

The 2012 ADDM report includes autism rate data from certain regions in selected states. They say it is a non-representative sample of the US. Yet they use it determining the the US autism rate is 1 in 88 (as on 2008). I downloaded some data back to 2000, and matched it up with EPA gross beta aerosol data from certain cities. Cities that were in the regions the ADDM uses were selected, or if no cities were available, I used a nearby city. I avoided cities 100 miles away or more. I ended up with matching data for Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, New Jersey, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin. The autism rate was for 8-year-olds, but the prenatal beta radiation exposure is what I was interested in, so I turned the clock back 8-9 years for every sample. For example, if the children from 2008 were studied, I looked at average beta radiation in 1999-2000.

In environmental studies like this, where multiple causes are present for an effect, the data should not be pooled. Radiation is just one factor – there are vaccination rates, socioeconomic factors, lead and mercury concentration, etc. So an N-of-1 analysis was conducted, each state was considered its own experiment, and a resampling method was used which weighted each state by the square root of the number of observations per state. Of course, there are FAR too few data here to produce any kind of significant effect. But I just wanted to see what was going on. It did turn out that autism rate was positively correlated with beta radiation:

……. Kendall’s tau-b …… P < boys ......... +.091 ................ 0.35 girls .......... +.094 ................ 0.35 combined . +.101 ................ 0.34 Montgomery AL and Barnwell SC did show a correlation.

39 thoughts on “Autism and radioactivity.

  1. Thank you, Bobby1! Your graphs are powerful, revealing the connection between radiation and autism. My daughter is dyslexic, and I bet that radiation is also a major source of the increasing amounts of dyslexia, ADHD, etc.

  2. You are brilliant!

    Remember that older fathers are being linked with increased rate of autistic children:
    Ionizing radiation-induced mutant frequencies increase transiently in male germ cells of older mice Guogang Xua, C. Alex McMahanb, Kim Hildretha, Rebecca A. Garciaa, Damon C. Herberta, Christi A. Walter Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Available online 31 January 2012

    Other Mechanism? CD 56 NK cells are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation

    The conclusion “CD56 (bright) subset of NK cells and this subpopulation was considered as the most radiosensitive one.” was found in this article: Doris Vokurková a, Ji_rina Vávrová b, Ji_rí _Sinkora c, Alena Stoklasová a, Václav Bláha b, Martina _Rezá_cová a (2010). Radiosensitivity of CD3_CD8þCD56þ NK cells Radiation Measurements 45 (2010) 1020e1023

    Majia: The connection to autism for CD 56 cells was found in this article:

    ABSTRACT: “children with autism found to have abnormalities in function of NK cells, Immune related abnormalities have repeatedly been reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including evidence of immune dysregulation and autoimmune phenomena. NK cells may play an important role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD. Here we performed a gene expression screen and cellular functional analysis on peripheral blood obtained from 52 children with ASD and 27 typically developing control children enrolled in the case-control CHARGE study. RNA expression of NK cell receptors and effector molecules were significantly upregulated in ASD. Flow cytometric analysis of NK cells demonstrated increased production of perforin, granzyme B, and interferon gamma (IFNc) under resting conditions in children with ASD (p < 0.01). Following NK cell stimulation in the presence of K562 target cells, the cytotoxicity of NK cells was significantly reduced in ASD compared with controls (p < 0.02). Furthermore, under similar stimulation conditions the presence of perforin, granzyme B, and IFNc in NK cells from ASD children was significantly lower compared with controls (p < 0.001). These findings suggest possible dysfunction of NK cells in children with ASD. Abnormalities in NK cells may represent a susceptibility factor in ASD and may predispose to the development of autoimmunity and/or adverse neuroimmune interactions during critical periods of development. Altered gene expression and function of peripheral blood natural killer cells in children with autism.
    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 23, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 124-133

    • majia, thanks. Older parents have had a longer time to build up a load of radionuclides and toxins such as mercury. Their DNA is more screwed up compared to younger parents, it makes sense.

      People with autism also have a high rate of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and MS. There is clearly a connection. Also those with autoimmune diseases are more susceptible to central sensitization diseases like fibromyalgia. I undertook a similar analysis as here for FM patients, and found positive correlation for 6 of 9 FM symptoms.

      Clearly there is ongoing destruction of the human genome in progress, and this was happening before Fuku.

  3. “Clearly there is ongoing destruction of the human genome in progress, and this was happening before Fuku.”

    Bobby1 indeed! Nuclear Forensic Science. Question is how to convince the larger public that the dots are all connected? Family members and friends tell me that they have “survived” the atomic testing, TMI and Chernobyl. When I remind them of their glaucoma, high blood pressure , miscarriages, unheard of family disease, diabetes etc they refuse to listen further.

    • There is a lot of denial. But radiation is like The Blob, it’s everywhere. How do you fight the Blob? It is unseen, it’s something so alien that the human mind finds it hard to confront and deal with. That is why man-made radiation is so insidiously evil. You can deal with thieves and murderers and armies because you can see them, you can picture them in your mind and how to fight them. Not so with radiation.

  4. Just as I finished writing this we learned of a family friend that was present in the TMI area was just diagnosed with stage 4 ovarian cancer. A lovely woman who doesn’t deserve such a horrible diagnosis.

  5. Bobby1 you hit the nail on the head. Western Medicine with all it technological prowess is void of any consistent CAUSE of Autism or any other auto-immune disease. Sure they can identify the diseases and the progression, but nothing on the cause. If you don’t know the root cause then you can’t fix it.
    I will send you an email tomorrow as I really need your thoughts on a topic. Is that address on this blog where I should direct it?

    • Shazzam, yes, but replace the (at) with @.

      Environmental medicine doesn’t have the grant money behind it, because the purse strings are dominated by polluters. The same reason it’s hard to find quality radiation research nowadays, the purse strings are controlled by the nuclear mafia. And it does take money for equipment, lab time, and scientists’ salaries. These papers take an agonizingly long time to write and go through the review process.

  6. Evidence suggests that children with autism have more harmful intestinal bacteria that produce neurotoxins than control groups.

    There is evidence that children with autism have “a higher incidence of the Clostridium histolyticum group (Clostridium clusters I and II) of bacteria than that of healthy children.”
    http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/content/54/10/987.full

    Clostridium histolyticum produces a similar neurotoxin to Clostridium tetani, which causes the deadly disease tetanus.

    Is radiation not only destroying DNA, but also creating environments where toxic bacteria proliferate, and then continually release neurotoxins?
    Radiation Resistance of Spores of Clostridium Species In Aqueous Suspension
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1965.tb01859.x/abstract

    Are dyslexia, diabetes, depression, as well as other epidemics like ADHD, also related to the toxins released by these bacteria? So radiation damages our DNA and increases our load of neurotoxins produced by bacteria?
    http://gaps.me/?page_id=20

    • Interesting research NoNukes. This might explain why the vaccinations impact some children with more devastating impact than others. If they already have a toxic gut the toxins in the vaccines send them over the edge. The increase in c-sections and formula feeding all compromise the development of natural gut flora. Nightmarish to fathom how this will swell in the years ahead.

  7. Delaware allows flu vaccines containing mercury

    Public health officials say health care providers can use an influenza vaccine containing mercury as a preservative because there are shortages of the mercury-free vaccine during the flu epidemic.

    The Division of Public Health said Tuesday that the use of mercury-containing vaccine for pregnant women and children younger than 8 years is normally banned. However, the DPH director can allow use of such vaccines.

    DPH director Dr. Karyl Rattay says the flu season has reached epidemic levels, with 713 confirmed cases and two deaths. And the state is experiencing a shortage of mercury-free vaccine.

    Residents who have not been vaccinated against the flu are urged to get the shot.

    The declaration is in effect for one year.

    http://www.wboc.com/story/20650657/del-allowing-flu-vaccines-containing-mercury

    • The ECRR report states that uranium binds to DNA. When gamma radiation is in the environment, inside or outside of the body, the uranium acts like a lens and focuses radiation on the DNA. This photoelectric effect is a secondary genotoxic effect over and above the effect uranium normally has on DNA.

      This is due to uranium being a heavy metal. The amount of damage done is proportional to the fourth power of the atomic number.

      Mercury also binds to DNA. It is also a heavy metal, but less heavy than uranium. It also exhibits a photoelectric effect on DNA… at a level of 57% that of uranium.

      Ethyl mercury in flu vaccines is also genotoxic by itself:

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18321677

      Injecting mercury into pregnant women and children, when there is widespread radioactive contamination in the environment, amounts to genocide.

  8. Day 22 of Autism Agony at Loyola U Medical Center

    The members of AIM and Alex’s mother now fear for Alex’s life as the result of medical negligence at Loyola University Medical Center. If this was a typically developing child tests of every sort would be run to determine what is wrong. Alex is holding his stomach and his head, IN PAIN. Where is neurology? Where are the gastroenterologists? WHERE ARE THE “AUTISM SPECIALISTS”?
    Where are the qualified medical physicians who CARE SO MUCH?! Day 22 for Alex Spourdalakis.

    http://www.ageofautism.com/2013/03/day-22-autism-agony-at-loyola-u-medical-center-.html

    • “Currently, this child is being treated with Lorezepam, Oxezepam, Benzatropine, Zyprexa and Ativan. These drugs do nothing to address the intense gastrointestinal issues he is experiencing, nor do they alleviate his pain.”

      These antipsychotic medications are radically increasing Alex’s prolactin level. Look at the photo. He is having a Th2 & Th17 allergic response to toxins in his hospital environment… including toxins like cesium-137.

      http://www.ageofautism.com/2013/03/day-19-loyola-chicago-hospital-locks-down-autistic-patient.html

      • These symptoms are not radically different from my own… except in my case, the prolactin is coming from a prolactinoma, not medication, and I am having a Th1 & Th17 inflammatory response instead of an allergic response. Give Alex some hydergine & Korean red ginseng.

  9. Evidence of parallels between mercury intoxication and the brain pathology in autism

    The purpose of this review is to examine the parallels between the effects mercury intoxication on the brain and the brain pathology found in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review finds evidence of many parallels between the two, including:…

    (20 of them)…

    This review also discusses the ability of mercury to potentiate and work synergistically with other toxins and pathogens in a way that may contribute to the brain pathology in ASD. The evidence suggests that mercury may be either causal or contributory in the brain pathology in ASD, possibly working synergistically with other toxic compounds or pathogens to produce the brain pathology observed in those diagnosed with an ASD.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22810216

    • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16182941

      this is what happened to Bubba after age 8, which is way late, but that is because he didn’t eat a 100% american diet the whole childhood. He ate american, but did not DRINK american, as in he did not consume sodas or kool-aid drinks, or much juice, ONLY water. THAT”S why it took so long for him to ‘show’ ‘autistic’. PLUS did not receive any vaccines after the first set… thank GOD, so showed NOT at age 2-3 yrs of age like everyone else’s kids…. it was a slow burn…. then it was diagnosed as “Tourette’s” when it suddenly appeared at age 11, but really it was what this article is talking about. He tested kinesiologically for cerebellum/basal ganglia damage due to auto-immune attack…. BAM baby….. workin the program up in here…..

      • He was tested in the period Nov 11 – Jan 12, which is when a goiter popped out of my neck, and my eyeball popped out and I lost half my vision. That is, during a period of elevated radioactive toxins.

        It is the inflammatory cytokines that are released from irritation of neurons by iodine-131 and stuff like that.

        • it was as you say, during that time period. actually the unintentional movements called “Tourette’s” at the time showed up for Bubba in June of 2011, directly after Fuku blew, but yes, he was ‘evaluated’ during the time you said exactly when you had your eye bulge and thyroid thing..

  10. The More Vaccines An Infant Receives In Its First Year, The Higher The Mortality Rate

    How many babies have to die for Doctors to get it? Synergistic toxicity is a well-known phenomenon where the combination of toxic substances can be greater than the sum of its parts. Therefore, mixing two non-lethal levels of chemicals inside a vaccine can lead to an extremely toxic mixture. The medical community appears to gloss over this very pertinent fact that appears to be progressively killing more infants every year.

    “Synergistic toxicity” refers to the effect that when exposed to two toxins, the toxicity level is far greater than the additive toxicity levels of the two toxins. A good example demonstrating ‘synergistic toxicity’ is a 1978 study on mice (Shubert et al. Combined Effects in Toxicology — A Rapid systematic Testing Procedure: Cadmium, Mercury & Lead. J. of Toxicology & Environmental Health 4:763, 1978). The study took the amount of mercury salt that kills 1 in 100 mice and 1/20th of the amount of lead salt that kills 1 in 100 mice. When these amounts of mercury salt and lead salt were administered, the synergistic toxicity of these two toxins killed 100 in 100 mice…

    A study published in the Human and Experimental Toxicology journal has found a direct statistical correlation between higher vaccine doses and infant mortality rates. It is a confirmation that many anti-vaccine advocates have long awaited and further establishes and adds to preliminary evidence that vaccinations are toxic poisons having no place in the human body.

    http://preventdisease.com/news/13/050213_The-More-Vaccines-An-Infant-Receives-In-Its-First-Year-The-Higher-The-Mortality-Rate.shtml

    • New study says parents who read books and the news reject vaccines – Pediatrics Journal

      This new Pediatrics study is an amusing comment on the caliber of those who blindly follow the CDC vaccination schedule (70+ doses of 16 vaccines age 0-18).

      The study authors label CDC followers ‘conformists’ – an apt term. Vaccine conformists are less likely to read books, pamphlets or the news. In other words, they are less informed.

      Non-conformists (those who don’t fully vaccinate) have larger social groups and are more plugged in to sources such as books, news and the internet.

      In other words, sheeple follow the CDC – baa baa baa. Doctors like sheeple.

      But parents who think for themselves discover something about vaccines that makes them reject the CDC vaccine schedule. Hmmmm, wonder what that is?

      Doctors don’t like non-conformists who think for themselves.

      http://therefusers.com/refusers-newsroom/new-study-says-parents-who-read-books-and-the-news-reject-vaccines-pediatrics-journal/#.UYe0rmtBrQg

      • These are adverse event reports for vaccines on ONE DAY, Mar 12, 2013.

        https://vaers.hhs.gov/data/data

        Swelling, red, hot rash. VERY painful, went to ER Sat afternoon as it was extensive. Given IV infusion therapy/prophylaxis/Dx, ordered blood culture, CBC, Rx Bactrim and Vicodin.
        Infertility and menopausal symptoms.
        This spontaneous report was received from a registered nurse via a company representative refers to a approximately 17 year old male patient. On an unknown date, the patient was vaccinated with the first dose of GARDASIL (lot # H016238, expiry date and dose were not reported) intramuscularly. On an unknown date, after administration of the vaccine the patient passed out for a few seconds, appeared to have had a seizure. The patient did not eat or drink till the morning of the shot. The patient sought medical attention (was at the office at the time of the adverse experience). The outcome of the event was unknown. Upon internal review, the event of Patient passed out for a few seconds, appears to have had a seizure was considered as medically significant event. Additional information has been requested.
        Raised bump day of vaccine, itchy, red still has raised bump itchy, red as of 3/5/13.
        Facial rash – erythema (B) cheeks & periorbital petechiae. Gave TYLENOL & BENADRYL. Monitored x 20 minutes.
        Mom says day after Flu shot child’s arm had red spot & swollen size of 1/2 dollar, it spread & doubled in size & knotted lip. She took child to Dr, he told her she had an allergic reaction & had parent give BENADRYL. Symptoms went away in a few days. Mom says H1N1 vaccine 1-4-10 child was admitted with RSV hosp 3 days.
        First swollen knot, red, painful, itchy injection site. On 03/06/2013 noticed a rash higher on my shoulder. By next day rash look like shingles. There is no information to tell me if this IS shingles and what steps I should take to protect myself and others. Merck should cover the rash reaction in their information. Is this rash shingles? I still have the shingles rash, my doctor has prescribed a steroid and Valacyclovir but will the Valacyclovir negate the vaccine for which I have paid over $200?
        Given 5 shots that were not needed due to duplicate immunization records.
        LT LEG INJECTION SITE FOR KINRIX (DTAP AND IPV) HAS A SOFTBALL SIZE LUMP THAT IS HARD, RED, PAINFUL AND PATIENT WILL NOT WALK OR USE THAT LEG. SHE IS VERY UNCOMFORTABLE AND CRYING.
        Fever, chills, severe pain at injection site, headache, general malaise.
        I received the vac on March 1, 2013, 2 hours after getting the vac I began to have burning at the injection site. By the next morning I had burning from the site across both shoulders and into my neck, as well as a headache. Later in the day I started to develop slight shortness of breath and occasional sharp chest pain. I am a nurse in the local ER where I live so I had our NP look at my arm. He felt like I was having an allergic reaction to the vaccination. He advise me to follow up with the on call MD if symptoms worsen. Later that night I had developed a fever, weakness, and dizziness. By Sunday all my symptoms were increasing and I became hoarse but did not have a sore throat. Monday I seen the on call MD he dx me with an allergic reaction, pharyngitis, laryngitis, the doctor said that I has swelling and blisters noted in my throat. He started me on Amoxicillin. Tuesday symptoms are still present with an increase in soa, weakness, dizziness and pain/ burning and I was becoming very nauseated with some abdominal pain and diarrhea. I was seen in the ER and was dx with allergic drug reaction, shingles, and acute sore throat (tho my throat has not been sore). I was given azithromycin, dexamethasone (tho I have a steroid allergy), gabapentin, and Valtrex. I was also instructed not to take amoxicillin. Wednesday symptoms are still present and still slightly increasing, MD office called to see if I was improving. When I informed them that I was not the nurse had me come in for a follow up. While there MD instructed me to stop the azithromycin, start the amoxicillin again, he also gave me Lortab 10mg and Phenergan. Thursday symptoms still present and weakness, and dizziness are increasing. And the burning and pain have moved down my back into my hips at this point. I was sent to yet another MD by my workers comp rep. This MD gave me a breathing treatment, done blood work, and a chest x-ray (which was clear). She instructed me to increase my Valtrex to 3 times a day, start the azithromycin back, started Symbicort inhaler, and continue all other meds as ordered. She also had concerns about Guillain Barre and told me to return to ER if symptoms became worse. If not worse then to follow up on Monday to insure I was improving. Friday dizziness, weakness, nausea, soa, and chest tightness increased, made a visit to the ER. while there labs where done, and an x-ray. I was dx with pneumonia and started on albuterol inhaler and Omnicef and to continue all other meds. I voiced my concerns about what MD had said Thursday night, this MD stated I would need to follow up with a neurologist. Saturday still having increase in symptoms, it is painful to walk even short distances, I am dizzy to the point I have almost fallen several times. I am extremely weak and have dropped items that I have had in my hands. My headache is still present but feels different the when it started I have what feels like numbness in areas of my head. Sunday symptoms are not improving at this time most are still increasing, I now have a very sore swollen area in the left side of my neck that radiates to my ear. Monday I followed up with Dr. who I have established primary care with. Dr done a chest x-ray and a CBC, pneumonia was conformed. All symptoms still present without improvement. Dr. is making follow up appointments with neuro and allergy specialists. Tuesday symptoms still present without improvement.
        Rec’d shingles vacination. Developed a red and inflammed tennis ball size lump at the injection site (right arm). Lymphnodes under the same arm swollen and painful. Two red patches of skin on the side of the right breast.
        Itchy hive like rash on right arm. The rash extended up into the neck area and then down the arm towards the wrist and finger tips. It looked worse on the inside of lower arm. This rash started the day after vaccination. Minimal amount of soreness at the injection site. Was taken to the doctors office on 3/7/13 and was advised to take Benadryl po and use a cream that they had at home to treat eczema to apply to area. Physician advised them that this looked like an allergic response to vaccine that was given 2 days prior. Spoke with dad and daughter on 3/11/13 and patient feels rash has improved, dad is unsure if it is looking improved.
        Parent reported that patient had swelling in (R) leg. Parent reported that patient has no fever, rash, respiratory problems, and is playing appropriately. RN advised parent to use cool moist compresses to area.
        3/7/13 – developed bloody stool, U/S negative, bloody stool increased, air enema diagnosis of intussusception but not successfully reduced. 3/8/13 – Brought to OR for reduction.
        38 year old female possible allergic reaction to TDAP vaccine.
        Severe pain in upper-right arm. Sought medical help and was given several rounds of oral steroids. Severe pain lasted several months and then led to muscle atrophy. Began physical therapy to regain use of right arm.
        Patient had headaches, nausea, decreased appetite, muscle soreness, malaise and anorexia. Patient can hardly get up from his bed for 6 days. The next week, patient still felt very weak and has lost 15 pounds. Within 3 weeks of the flu shot, patient complained of hearing loss mostly on the right side.
        Arm starting hurting more. Arm red around injection site with burning sensation. Starting to swell more.
        Employee states, “On 02/07/2013, I received a MMR vaccination from Employee Health. I did not have any side effects that I noticed from then to before Friday. But on 03/01/2013, when I came home and tried to lay down on the bed and rest, I noticed a golf ball-size lump at the site of injection at my right upper arm. It was hot and painful and it has not gone away. I tried ice, heat, and Benadryl and Motrin. The size became a little smaller and there is just little heat.”
        4 days after receving vaccinations DTAP, IPV, MMR AND VARICELLA, patient had a seizure episode at day care on 03/08/13 at 10:00am. She also had 2 seizure episodes after being admitted in the PICU on 03/08/13 at 7:00 PM.
        Pt has hypopigmention at vaccine site in shape of circle.
        Multiple episodes of vomiting, headache. Temp of 99.
        PPD was placed on 08 March 13, and that evening the site was flat. Patient took a shower the next morning and put lotion on her skin, by that night on the same day as lotion was applied, the site started to itch. On Sunday morning, wheals (blistering) formed over the site, it continued to itch profusely. On Monday 11 March 2013, patient followed up at immunization clinic and was sent to Flight Medicine. Topical medication was prescribed and used. Problem soon resolved.
        Vaccine received 1/8. Pt called with injection site discoloration 7-14 days later. This was thought to be a normal rxn. Pt noticed a knot in her arm and saw MD on 3/12/13. Now has a cyst at the injection site. MD says only way to get rid of is to remove.

  11. Malcolm Brabant: ‘I suffered psychosis after a routine injection’

    In a powerful new book, veteran BBC correspondent Malcolm Brabant outlines his catastrophic descent into psychosis after a routine immunisation. Glenda Cooper reports on his battle for compensation, and his efforts to rebuild his life and career.

    New Year’s Eve 2011, and a psychedelic blaze of colour and sound erupted as a fireworks display heralded the start of the evening’s celebrations in the centre of Copenhagen. In his hospital room in the outskirts of the capital, the veteran BBC correspondent Malcolm Brabant calmly removed the belt from his trousers and tied one end around his neck, and the other to the end of his bed. He was convinced that he was the Devil and unless he killed himself by midnight, the apocalypse would be unleashed.

    ”That night I was absolutely convinced that the only way to stop the end of the world was for me to commit suicide,” says Brabant, 57, wryly. It was the latest of several troubling delusions that had haunted the award-winning reporter ever since a sudden illness in April 2011…

    The reason, Brabant believes, for the catastrophic events that overtook him, was a dose of Stamaril, a yellow fever vaccine, which he had received on April 15 2011.

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/wellbeing/10076221/Malcolm-Brabant-I-suffered-psychosis-after-a-routine-injection.html

  12. Boston schools seek $6m more for special ed
    Rise in students with autism helps prompt increase

    An increase in students being diagnosed with autism or other disabilities is driving up special education spending in Boston, prompting the School Department to request $6 million in ­supplemental funding…

    The funding is being used primarily to support public school programs for preschoolers diagnosed with disabilities, particularly on the autism spectrum, a segment of the student population that has seen a steep increase in special education enrollment.

    By April, 747 students with disabilities, including 158 on the autism spectrum, were enrolled in preschool, compared with 482 four years ago.

    http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2013/05/28/boston-schools-request-additional-million-special-funding/6hgXTo5rlRkJyFCxzgYJ0O/story.html

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