With the constant bombardment of the human organism with external and internal radiation in our time, many diseases are caused, including cancer. These exposures are not just from Fukushima, but Chernobyl, the nuclear bomb test era (which is still making people sick), medical diagnostics and treatments, military uses of depleted uranium, uranium mining, fracking, oil and gas spills, industrial and medical wastes, nuclear dump sites, and nuclear reactors of all types including nuclear power plants. There are many ways are health is being screwed up, our chromosomes and the increasing damage to our genetic integrity in each passing generation.
But there seems to be a general pattern involved in what is being called Fukushima AIDS. The prior post dealt with T-cells in the immune system. These arise from bone marrow, and radionuclides that accumulate in bone marrow and the skeleton are implicated in the general loss of immune system function. But there is a connection between the endocrine and immune systems that are both implicated in Fuku AIDS.
CHRONIC RADIATION SICKNESS (CRS)
The Physicians of Chernobyl website has a downloadable book “Neuropsychiatric Effects of Ionizing Radiation” by Nyagu and Loganovsky. The Soviet and Russian medical literature is much more advanced on the effects of radiation than American literature… in the USA they take your tax money to fund pseudo-scientists who say “radiation is good for you” while you get sick and die.
The radionuclides that enter the skeleton and bone marrow include strontium (89 and 90), cesium (134 and 137), radium-226, and uranium-238. These nuclides also lead to central nervous system damage, along with lead-210 (which accumulates in tissue). Iodine (131 and 133) attacks the thyroid, kidneys, and hypophysis (pituitary) and causes havoc with the endocrine system. Strontium (89 and 90) accumulates on the lens of the eye and causes strontium cataracts. Radium and plutonium collect in eye pigment cells. Eye damage is a characteristic of chronic radiation sickness (CRS).
From the book chapter: In osteotropic radioactive substances chronic incorporation the central nervous system irradiation occurs from the skeleton. At that the highest tissue doses are received by hypophysis [Sarapultsev I.A. et al., 1972]. The more frequent than in control pituitary tumors genesis is revealed in remote terms after 131 I, 211 At, 90 Sr, 144 Ce, 147 Pm, 106 Ru, 95 Nb, 241 Am, 252 Cf, 239 Pu, 238 Pu radionuclides incorporation [Streltsova V.N., Moscalev U.I., 1964]. Data regarding the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonads system reaction on internal irradiation are limited to the few number of experimental studies devoted to the gonads functional state evaluation [Moscalev U.I., 1989].
The Yablokov Chernobyl book cites research indicating prolactin levels were elevated in Chernobyl liquidators. Increased levels of prolactin is central in the genesis of inflammation and autoimmune disease, as well as disorders such as hypogonadism and osteoporosis. Pituitary tumors (prolactinomas) secrete very large amounts of prolactin. They are associated with exposure to iodine-131, strontium-90, plutonium (238 and 239), and isotopes like ruthenium-106 and cerium-144 that we don’t hear much about, but were and are likely being released in large amounts at Fukushima. There is a negative association between prolactin and dopamine. The dopamine receptors are blocked in this case, and the reward-prediction part of the learning and pleasure-seeking response in the brain is blunted. Keep this in mind when the neuropsychiatric dimensions of chronic radiation sickness is discussed below.
PSYCHOPHYSICAL EFFECTS OF BONE-SEEKING RADIOISOTOPES
The authors go on to discuss in detail the psychophysical effects of radiation exposure to radioisotopes that deposit in bone – strontium, radium, uranium, and cesium (which is deposited in the whole body).
Strontium: Selectively deposited in skeleton (mainly in bone growth zone) especially in pregnancy and lactation; enters foetus through placenta; enters breast milk. Less than 1% is accumulated in soft tissue. Among other symptoms the asthenic-vegetative and osteoalgetic syndromes are described with central nervous system organic damage outcome.
Cesium: Relatively homogeneously distributed in organism. Accumulated in muscles, liver, kidneys, lungs, skeleton, enters foetus through placenta, enters breast milk. Data are available about caesium accumulation in brain… Both with other manifestations of caesium incorporation the asthenic-vegetative and depressive syndromes with outcome in central nervous system organic damage with vegetative polyneuritis are known.
Radium: Deposited in bone tissue, kidneys, salivary glands. Radium intoxication is characterised with bone tissue destruction, radiation osteitis rise leading to increased brittleness and bone pathological fractures. Asthenic-vegetative disorders, specific osteoalgetic syndrome (pain in hand and leg bones, sternum, ribs, sometimes — spine), central nervous system organic injury, radiation cataract are known both with other radium injuries.
Uranium: Extremely strong protoplasmic poison. Bones are the critical organ. Is also accumulated in parenchymal organs. Uranium intoxication is peculiar with polytropism where in particular the asthenic-vegetative syndrome and vegetative dysfunction, central nervous system organic damage and paralyses are characteristic.
A word about asthenic-vegetative syndrome. “Asthenic” refers to weakness, in general. “Vegetative” refers to a state where a patient shown signs of being awake, but is really unconscious. Like a person in a “vegetative state” is not brain-dead, but cannot function as a human being because he/she is really unconscious.
So the “asthenic-vegetative syndrome” refers to a state of physical and psychological weakness, in which a person is in a state somewhere between full wakefulness and sleep. This is about as succinct a description of Fukushima AIDS as is possible to make.
ASTHENIC SYNDROME AND CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME (CFS, CFIDS)
The book “Acupuncture Physical Medicine” by Mark Seem has a section on “The Psychologization of Exhaustion”. The turn-of-the-century French philosopher Pierre Janet developed a theory of psychological force, referring to the quantity of an individual’s psychic energy, and his ability to utilize it.
He chose the term “asthenic syndrome” to describe the conditions manifested by an insufficiency of psychological force, the main consistent symptom being a profound lassitude that increased after any effort and decreased after rest. Janet developed a three-part theory of these asthenic syndromes which bears a remarkable resemblance to the modern definition of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
The first type of asthenic syndrome was mild in nature. The patient was dissatisfied with himself, was unable to experience happiness or pleasure, and became easily anxious or depressed. Aware of this tendency to tire easily, such patients avoided all effort or initiative, shied away from social interactions, and hence were experienced by others as dull or selfish. They tended to restrict their interests and feelings and to be suspicious of others, thus giving enormous attention to things that others would consider of no importance.
The second type of asthenic syndrome was more social in nature. These patients felt a sense of void, finding things of the world, other people, even their own personalities empty.
The third type of asthenic syndrome referred to patients so severely weakened by their condition that they were unable to maintain steady jobs or any sustained activity.
Loganovsky subsequently authored a paper in which 26% of Chernobyl liquidators that suffered fatigue met the clinical definition of chronic fatigue syndrome.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) definition could be applicable to the assessment of the medical aftermath of radioecological disasters and to investigate a possible psychophysiological basis of fatigue in Chernobyl accident survivors. One hundred randomly selected clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident who presented with complains of fatigue were examined neuropsychiatrically using MMPI profiles, Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG) and Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). Twenty-six percent of them met the CFS diagnostic criteria. Their absorbed radiation doses were less than 0.3 Sv, an exposure level that is not expected to produce a clear deterministic radiation effect. Clinical symptomatology included persistent fatigue, odd skin sensations, bizarre feelings in bones, muscles and joints, irritability, headache, vertigo, pain in the chest area, emotional lability, irritability, lack of concentration and memory, cognitive deterioration, depression signs and sleep disorders. Liquidators with CFS had the characteristic MMPI profile with increased hypochondria, depression, clear hypochondria, schizophrenia, hysteria, psychasthenia, and bizarre sensory perception scales… Thus, “Vegetative-Vascular Dystonia” and “Osteoalgetic Syndrome” cases following exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident can be classified as CFS cases. The psychophysiological basis of fatigue in liquidators consists of dysfunction of the cortico-limbical structures of the left, dominating, hemisphere. CFS is one of the most important consequences of radio-ecological disaster, which results from an interaction of different hazardous environmental factors.
Yablokov et al. later added, “A total of 26 out of 100 randomly selected liquidators who suffered from fatigue met the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) diagnostic criteria. CFS may therefore be one of the most widespread consequences of the catastrophe for liquidators… Moreover, although CFS incidence decreased signiﬁcantly… (after 10 years), the frequency of occurrence of metabolic syndrome X (MSX—a group of risk factors for heart disease) increased signiﬁcantly…during the same period… CFS and MSX are considered to be the ﬁrst stages in the development of other pathologies, and CFS can transform into MSX neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric disorders.”
SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME
These are pretty much the same as, or a subset of, the radiation-generated symptoms we see here. According to the CFIDS Association of America,
CFS is characterized by incapacitating fatigue (experienced as profound exhaustion and extremely poor stamina) and problems with concentration and short-term memory. It is also accompanied by flu-like symptoms such as pain in the joints and muscles, unrefreshing sleep, tender lymph nodes, sore throat and headache. A distinctive characteristic of the illness is post-exertional malaise, a worsening of symptoms following physical or mental exertion occurring within 12-48 hours of the exertion and requiring an extended recovery period.
The symptoms of CFS are highly variable and fluctuate in severity, complicating treatment and the ill person’s ability to cope with the illness. Most symptoms are invisible, which makes it difficult for others to understand the vast array of debilitating symptoms with which people with the illness must contend…
Additional symptoms are reported by people with CFS (PWCs) such as word-finding difficulties, inability to comprehend/retain what is read, inability to calculate numbers and impairment of speech and/or reasoning. PWCs may also have visual disturbances (blurring, sensitivity to light, eye pain, need for frequent prescription changes); psychological problems (depression, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, personality changes, mood swings); chills and night sweats; shortness of breath; dizziness and balance problems; sensitivity to heat and/or cold; alcohol intolerance; irregular heartbeat; irritable bowel (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, intestinal gas); low-grade fever or low body temperature; numbness, tingling and/or burning sensations in the face or extremities; dryness of the mouth and eyes (sicca syndrome); gynecological problems including PMS and endometriosis; chest pains; rashes; ringing in the ears (tinnitus); allergies and sensitivities to noise/sound, odors, chemicals and medications; weight changes without changes in diet; light-headedness; mental fogginess; fainting; muscle twitching; and seizures.
FIRST STAGE OF CHRONIC RADIATION SICKNESS (MILD)
There is much information here. The authors go on (p. 15 of the pdf):
Below we present the CRS clinical pattern statement (mainly of neuropsychiatric components) based on its classical description by N.A. Kurshakov (1963).
The first (mild) degree of CRS starts gradually. Sometimes exposed persons consider themselves completely healthy and the disease is revealed accidentally in planned clinical examination. At that the blood alterations or neurological symptoms are the most characteristic being the earliest signs of rising pathology. Neurovisceral regulation alteration is the nervous system reaction earliest form. Complaints on headaches in cranium various parts appear — most often in frontal one. They rise and increase in strain and emotional experiences. Sometimes headache became of migraine type. Dizziness, nausea, darkening in eyes in position change are observed. Patient became more and more irritable, quickly becomes tired, working capacity is noticeably decreased. Patient is troubled with sleeping disorders. Asthenic syndrome is revealed objectively with emotional instability, marked memory decrease and elevated fatiguability.
… unpleasant sensations in heart region, rushes of blood with skin rapid turning red in separate parts, face skin reddening or turning pale, heat sensation, cyanosis, extremities marmorated skin. Vasomotor disorders are accompanied by elevated sweating, tendon and periosteal reflexes amplification, eyelids and stretched arms fingers pronounced tremor. Pyloromotoric reaction and dermographism alterations are observed both with arterial blood pressure instability with tendency to decrease. Appointments on numerous and various pain sensations are prevailed in patients complaints…
Pains in bones, joints and muscles are characteristic. Osteoalgetic syndrome is especially pronounced in case of osteotropic radionuclides deposition. Pains are more intensive in warmth and in repose relieving in movements. Vibration sensitivity is usually depressed whereas superficial sensitivity types are damaged slightly…
Endocrine shifts and metabolic disorders stipulate asthenic state along with neurodynamic alterations… Irritable weakness signs characteristic for neurasthenia, psychoasthenic events etc. are the typical symptoms here. Working capacity of patients decreases.
Various regulation disorders are present in all organism systems. Pressure decrease in retina central artery was described. Sexual function disorders can be revealed: impotence in males and ovarian-menstrual cycle alteration in follicular hormones lack in females. Trophic disorders (volume, consistency, moisture content of body tissues) are characteristic here with central and peripheral agents important role in genesis. General appearance of patients testifies the gradually rising premature tissue wasting away: face colour deterioration, tissue turgor decrease, skin becomes more flabby, peeling and pigmented. Skin chaps, poor healing takes place both with hair loss intensification. In general, the nervous system damage is characterised with asthenic-vegetative syndrome.
Leukopenia appears, reduced platelet count and decreased coagulation in blood. Paresthesia, burning, numbing, tingling, pricking sensations, pins-and-needles sensations, intolerance to loud sounds and bright lights.
SECOND STAGE OF CHRONIC RADIATION SICKNESS (MODERATE)
Now the symptoms widen and get more severe. Untreatable headaches, exhaustion, lack of appetite, sleepiness or insomnia, dizziness, sensation of weight or emptiness in the head, inability to endure mental strain. Substantial memory loss, excessive irritable weakness and rapid fatiguability lead to disability. Rapid heartbeat, chills, fever, cold extremities, sleepiness, insomnia, hair loss, loss of weight or obesity occurs. Deterioration is followed by improvement, which is followed by worse deterioration, a vicious cycle. Bone pain gets worse if bone-seeking radionuclides involved.
Pituitary disorders, adrenal disorders, hypotonia (low muscle tone or strength), Addison’s syndrome, lack of libido, impotence in men, and dysmenorrhea or amenorrhea in women. Dermatoses, itching, skin peeling, callouses. Nails thinned, brittle, covered with streaks. Intensified hair loss.
Swollen eyelids, cataract, retinal angiopathy occur in the eyes. Cardiovascular hypotonia, reduced blood pressure, anemia.
THIRD STAGE OF CHRONIC RADIATION SICKNESS (SEVERE)
In the third (severe) degree of CRS the pathological symptomatic furthermore spread and deepening is observed. In this form the striking discrepancy can take place between satisfactory self-feeling and threatening objective signs. Symptomatic corresponds to the described above but is peculiar with higher expression.
Central nervous system organic damage is characteristic here. Neurological disorders are mainly of diffuse pattern. Alterations are peculiar with pathological symptoms stability. In rare cases the pathological events partial regress can be observed but in majority of cases the steadfast progressing to deterioration is observed. Sometimes the process undulating course is marked with remissions and exacerbations. Central nervous system diffuse injury is rising through the demyelinating encephalomyelitis (diffuse encephalomyelosis) or toxic encephalitis type with preemptive involvement of mesencephalon and diencephalon. Funicular myelosis signs are observed. Reflex, locomotive and sensation spheres disorders are revealed objectively… In osteotropic radionuclides incorporation the pain in bones is characteristic both independent one and risen under percussion. Most often this pain is felt in shin bones and sternum. Usually it intensifies in warmth and repose, especially at night. Rough sensation alterations are rare with the exception of severe injuries from radioactive substances incorporated in bones resulting in radiculoneuritic syndrome. The especially severe depression of vibration sensation is described in such cases. Besides that painful sensations appear in body various parts especially in arms and legs distal parts.
Vascular disorders, hypothalamic injury, subarachnoid hemorrhages, further impotency in men and menstrual cycle disorders in women, further blood alterations. “Prognosis is extremely unfavourable.”
FOURTH STAGE OF CHRONIC RADIATION SICKNESS (FINAL)
In this terminal stage the disease with accelerating rate is progressing to the lethal exit. Self-feeling in patients exacerbates, complaints severity rises. Apathy and general weakness rise. Sleep and appetite are deteriorated, dyspeptic disorders appear, head aches and pain in bones become more intensive. In some cases adynamia is so pronounced that patients in all ways long for having rest with any external irritants elimination. Neurological symptomatic described above is exacerbated. Infection diseases are joined defining disease prognosis. Expressed disorders of dystrophic type are revealed in organs and systems. Heart function and vascular tone weakening signs are found. Adrenal failure stipulated adynamia and hypotonia rise in patients.
Small vessel brittleness is increased with their walls permeability elevation leading to the tissue swelling. Vascular disorders are the main factor of haemorrhagic diathesis rise being stipulated by blood system alterations. Haemorrhages appear on body surface (small petechia and larger ecchymoses), mucosa and internal viscera tissues. Haemorrhages are accompanied by trophic bedsores rise and infection-septic focuses. Subarachnoid haemorrhages can take place and more rare — haemorrhages in brain tissue.
Blood indices are especially characteristic here. Bone marrow haemopoiesis sharp depression takes place. Lymphopoiesis is also greatly depressed however usually to the less extent. Leukocyte content can reach down to 0.01–0.1⋅10 9 ⋅L -1 . In severest cases only the single cells are found in smears. Thrombocytopenia is sharply expressed: platelet content goes down to several thousand and even less. Erythropoiesis is altered to the less extent — 1.5 – 2.0⋅10 9 RBC⋅L -1 . Reticulocytosis can still remain. ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) is elevated substantially. Blood coagulation, RBC osmotic resistance in terminal period are lowered. Bone marrow pattern is characterised by its «devastation». Death can occur in haemopoiesis catastrophic collapse and sepsis rise.
More on the role of prolactin, and more info on immune system-related diseases coming up.