Fungi from Japan transported into USA, in spring 2011.

In an article that appeared yesterday, “Researchers document astounding number of microbial and fungal species transported with high-altitude dust plumes”, scientists from the University of Washington, headed by David Smith, tested material gathered in 2011, shortly after the Fukushima catastrophe, from a mountaintop in Oregon. A huge amount of fungi and bacteria were found. The results were published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, and is available here.

Over 7 million tons of dust, pollutants, microorganisms and other aerosols cross the Pacific each year. This link includes graphics and a high-resolution animation from NASA scientists about this process.

“Smith reports that his research enabled him to gather enough biomass in the form of DNA to apply molecular methods to samples from two large dust plumes originating in Asia in the spring of 2011. The scientists detected more than 2,100 unique species compared to only 18 found in the very same plumes using traditional methods of culturing, results they published in July.

“It’s a small world. Global wind circulation can move Earth’s smallest types of life to just about anywhere,” Smith said… “I was very surprised at the concentrations. One might expect the concentrations of cells to decrease with altitude based on fallout and dilution,” Smith said. “But during these plume events, the atmosphere was pooling these cells just as it does with other kinds of air pollution.”…

“I think we’re getting close to calling the atmosphere an ecosystem,” Smith said. “Until recently, most people would refer to it as a conveyor belt, or a transient place where life moves through. But the discovery of so many cells potentially able to adapt to traveling long distances at high altitudes challenges the old classification.”

An ecosystem is a milieu where life grows and thrives, not just moves. The fungi that blew over from Japan in April and May of 2011 were likely contaminated with radionuclides like cesium-137. As shown here in a previous post, melanized fungi (fungus species which contain the pigment melanin) use melanin for an energy source in the presence of radiation. This can keep these species viable over the long trip from Japan. In addition, the aerosols moving into the US from Japan also contained radioactive particles like cesium-137 and iodine-131. There would also have been radioactive gases present in the mix like krypton-85. One could see that these fungi could thrive in this high-altitude environment.

“Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples.”

These plant pathogens are melanized fungi, capable of causing cerebral phaeohyphomycosis, and other devastating diseases. The researchers found that when the wind was blowing from Asia, the amount of microorganisms vastly increased, and when the wind did not originate there, this amount vastly decreased.

The mass of fungi found was two orders of magnitude greater than the mass of bacteria, but the authors speculated that the number of cells was roughly equal. “All of the bacterial species recovered in this study (except Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis) are gram-positive, capable of forming endospores and commonly found in soils. Surely cells of all types can be lofted into the atmosphere, but endospore formers may be uniquely capable of surviving atmospheric transport and desiccation on air sampling devices. Endospore formation in Bacillus sp. provides high resistance to ultraviolet radiation or desiccation and the genus is quite common in the aerobiology literature…

“A broad range of fungi were recovered (26 genera), including molds, yeasts, and cup and sac fungi with diverse ecological distributions, mostly from soils and plant debris. Many of the sampled genera release spores in the spring time, explaining the fungal biomass “burst” measured in our study (beginning in April) and others. Some of the 31 species recovered are presumptive allergens or plant pathogens.”

The possibility exists that some of the fungi and bacteria that arrived in the US were mutated. The contaminated fungi are able to make long-distance trips. Some of the particles detected in Oregon came from the stratosphere, so it is likely that they could have spread across the globe.

I think that the spread of radioactive fungi probably happened during the atmospheric bomb-test era, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, as well as now in the Fukushima era. Yablokov et al documented the high prevalence of Pneumocystis Jirovecii in Chernobyl-contaminated areas. This fungus causes PCP pneumonia in AIDS sufferers and other immunocompromised subjects. Black mold and ringworm fungi were also prevalent. We have already seen black mold become a major issue in areas of the US devastated by Hurricane Sandy.

96 thoughts on “Fungi from Japan transported into USA, in spring 2011.

  1. I think I have mushrooms growing in my ass! 🙁

    What’s a nice girl like me doing molding and rotting from the insides out?

    Thanks nuclear fuck heads!

    Sorry Bobby1,…I’m just letting off some frustration and steam!

    I love you all, you know that! Thanks! 🙂

  2. This is interesting… Report on fungal meningitis outbreak from the New England Journal of Medicine:

    http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1213978

    “The FDA announcement on October 4 of visible fungal contamination in unopened vials of methylprednisolone acetate compounded at NECC confirmed the leading hypothesis that contaminated methylprednisolone acetate from NECC was causing serious fungal illness in patients who had received an injection with this medication.”

    Brilliant work, Sherlock. In other words, doctors were injecting contaminated medications into patients… with VISIBLE FUNGUS growing in the vials.

  3. Kawasaki Disease.
    “Over the last forty years, when north-westerly winds blow over Japan, there are spikes in Kawasaki cases. That’s remarkable in itself, but when the winds from Asia connect with winds crossing the North Pacific, there are epidemics on both sides of the ocean at the same time.”
    http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/3505144.htm
    Parents have often associated the outbreak with carpet cleaning/steaming events in the home or somewhere their children have visited. Onset, per many parents on the Kawasaki boards has been quick after exposure. The long held thought, disputed by the carpet cleaning industry, was that some sort of fungus was growing within the dampness. Cases spike in the winter months. People have wrongly associated this with the cleaning chemicals, but it is the fungus/bacteria/mold that is the devastating culprit.

    New evidence has pointed this to something being carried in the wind. Now it almost ties together for me with your post Bobby. Radioactive fungi transported in the wind. Damp carpets are the perfect storm. Small children that spend hours a day on the floor easily fall victim.

    I find it curious that the heart muscle is attacked. It is the number one cause of heart disease in children in US and Japan (and this is pre-Fukushia). Makes me think that there is cesium component here or some other radioisotope. Disease was first coined in 1967.

    They have been so busy since 1971 with the cancer propaganda campaign that many people only fear the big “C” in relation to radiation. BUT, the damage and devastation can be seen in virtually every diagnosis from “A” to “Z”.

    • From the pdf cited earlier:

      ” Microbial diversity increased significantly from March to May (P<0.05), with higher levels of species richness occurring in the latter half of the sampling season. "

      Association of Kawasaki disease with tropospheric wind patterns

      http://www.nature.com/srep/2011/111110/srep00152/full/srep00152.html

      “The monthly time series for KD cases in Japan since 1970 showed two dramatic nationwide epidemics lasting several months and peaking in May 1982 (16,100 annual cases) and March 1986 (14,700 annual cases), respectively. A third epidemic, much lower in magnitude, peaked around April 1979 (6,700 cases) (Figure 1a). These three peaks represent the largest KD epidemics events ever recorded worldwide and provide an opportunity to investigate KD dynamics and possible climate relationships. ”

      March to May… the highest amount of wind-borne pathogens, including fungi. Kawasaki saw his first case in 1960, during the bomb-test era.

      Next spring is going to be gnarly.

        • Mycoplasma pneumonia prevails | Fukushima Diary

          Nov 19, 2011 … I am coughing and having sore throat too. Especially, mycoplasma pneumonia is
          spiking up. Following up my previous post, Japanese emperor …
          fukushima-diary.com/2011/11/mycoplasma-pneumonia-prevails/

          Mycoplasma Infections
          Sep 28, 2012 … Mycoplasma species are the smallest free-living organisms. … Mycoplasmal
          organisms are usually associated with mucosal surfaces, residing …
          emedicine.medscape.com/article/223609-overview

          Common Mycoplasmas – Now Weaponized, Pathogenic And Deadly
          They had contracted “mad cow disease” from the Japanese experiments. … They
          used the same mycoplasma to develop disabling diseases like MS, Crohn’s …
          rense.com/general18/mcc.htm

    • Gail, I saw your latest post today, and it was encyclopedic like you said. It was like reading the entire World Book encyclopedia!

      The pool of contaminated water hit the Hawaiian islands some time ago. The amounts of radiation in fish near Japan are staggering, considering they are in an entire ocean. The fungi they mentioned can be explained in the above post. Cyanobacteria is thought to accumulate radionuclides in Japan, the mysterious “black substance”. The amount of radiation in the black substance is off the scale… 40,000,000 Bq/kg which is something like 60 times the worst place from Chernobyl.

    • A fast growing, flesh-eating fungus killed 5 people following a massive tornado that devastated Joplin, Mo., …
      “This is one of the most severe fungal infections that anyone’s ever seen,” said David Engelthaler, Director of Programs and Operations for TGen’s Pathogen Genomics Division.
      ~~~
      May have been radiation that mutated the Fungi or a strain created in Fukushima blew in ?

      • That was in May, the article said the May fungus plume was worse than the April one. Tornadoes do stuff like insert pieces of straw inside large trees. So you can imagine the stuff that was flying around.

        • Been in a few, tore my house up once. in 1975, just missed by an F5 in 1989 N.C. Been near a few others ! I could tell you some story’s, like

          F5 in 1989 N.C
          Mr. Rice’s trailer was ripped of the floor, “everything gone” including the frig, but eggs that were in the frig were on the floor in the open Styrofoam wrapper and all the eggs were unbroken !

          Neighbor house gone, even tearing the tile off the concrete foundation !, His plumbing truck perforated with gravel from the driveway, making it look as it it had been peppered with 50 caliber rounds for and hour !

          Bark ripped from all trees ! for 15 miles and cut 10 to 15 feet up, as if a huge lawn mower had gone through ! In the country, 7 dead !

  4. They Never Knew:
    The Victims of Atomic Testing

    One hundred and forty-nine atomic bombs have exploded over American soil. No one knows how many people, if any, these bombs have killed. The initial heat and shock of the explosions probably killed no one. Open-air atomic explosions, however, have more lasting and distant effects. They create and release tremendous amounts of highly dangerous radioactive materials. Radiation causes cancer, leukemia, cardiovascular problems, cataracts, immunological weakness, genetic defects, pre-natal problems, mental retardation, and many other problems. Any deaths caused by radiation normally occur only years or decades later. Estimates of deaths worldwide from American, Soviet, British, French and Chinese nuclear tests range from something near zero to several million.

    In the name of democracy and self-defense, the United States tested bomb after bomb at a test site in Nevada. Each “shot” sent tons of radioactive particles boiling into the sky and drifting across the United States. The isotopes of plutonium, cesium, strontium, iodine-131 and other deadly elements gradually came to earth as “fallout.” A lot of it settled in Nevada and Utah, killing cattle, burning ranchers, sickening residents, causing leukemia in children, cancer in adults, deformities in the unborn. It contaminated milk in North Dakota. It ruined photographic film in New York. It settled into the soil of every state except Alaska and Hawaii.

    Another 66 test bombs – many of them far more powerful than those in Nevada – were detonated over the Marshall Islands, a U.S. “Trusteeship” territory in the South Pacific.
    …more …
    http://home.comcast.net/~glenncheney/testing.htm

    • China’s nuclear tests allegedly caused 190k deaths *VIDEO*

      Apr 20, 2009 … New research suggests that Chinese nuclear tests might have killed up to 190000 people over 32 years. Now ailing survivors are demanding government compensation for … said Chinese nuclear weapon tests caused more deaths
      than those … According to the news report, men and women of Unit 8023, …
      http://digitaljournal.com/article/271274

  5. Fungus threatens thousands of trees along famed French canal (video)

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20815665

    The picturesque Canal du Midi in southern France is a recognised UNESCO World Heritage site.

    But the 42,000 plane trees which run along its sides may have to be chopped down due to the spread of the infectious Ceratocystis platani fungus.

    http://doc.rero.ch/lm.php?url=1000,43,4,20100614145632-TH/Couch_Emmanuel_-_Asymmetric_Synthesis_of_the_cis-_and_trans-3_4-Dihydro-2_4_8_20100614.pdf

    This is a melanized fungus. “Apart from its protective role against the natural
    environmental stressors (UV radiations, desiccation, extreme temperatures), the
    melanization of the appressorium is essential for the pathogenic virulence of the fungus”

  6. Anti-fungal Activity of Punica Granatum I.peels Powder and Extracts
    from Pathogenic Samples

    Thirty five samples were collected from patients (1-30) years old, suffered from, infected skin , rushes, boils , oral thrush, anal & vaginal itches. Candida albicans 57.3% (20 isolates) and Candida tropicalis 22.5% (8 isolates) Aspergillus fumegatus 11.5% (4 isolates) Aspergillus nigar 8.7%(3 isolates) , were isolated & identified from these samples. Alcoholic & water hot extracts of the punica granatum (Pomegranate) peels as well as the dried powder were prepared. The anti-fungal activity of the extracts was evaluated by means of the agar-well diffusion assay. The extract exhibited potent activity against yeast… These results suggest the Pomegranate Peels extract which contains gallotanic acid as a promising anti-fungal agent.

    Conclusions
    From above study one can concluded that the extract of Pomegranate peels which contains Gallotanic acid is useful for the treatment of
    several infections and inflammatory disorders due to Candida albicans & Candida tropicalis , these results suggested the possibility of using
    this raw material in pharmaceutical as cream, ointment, skin solution, lotion ,powder, mouth wash, gargles and even ear drops.

    http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=24856

  7. Wow, new scientific paper has come out, with yours truly as last author:

    Touch, Caring, and Cancer: randomized controlled trial of a multimedia caregiver education program

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00520-012-1682-6/fulltext.html

    In summary, this study suggests that multimedia instruction in simple massage and touch-based methods of supportive care at home may offer family members a viable means of enhancing self-efficacy and satisfaction in caregiving. Family members can learn and safely apply uncomplicated methods that increase patient comfort and reduce distress. Currently, the program is being used in cancer centers, hospices, and other palliative care settings in the USA, Canada, UK, Ireland, Australia, and Vietnam, with the language options facilitating outreach to underserved populations. Further research is needed to explore effects in more narrowly conscribed samples and diverse methods of dissemination including internet download.

    • Bobby1, congratulations on your published paper. Hopefully, such care techniques become widely encouraged and respected. It reminds me of the positive touch techniques (kangaroo care ) and reading programs designed for premature infants. We are wired for this biologically and our body and souls.
      accordingly respond.Let’s not wait until we are in dire need to receive or provide such beneficial medicine.

        • Thanks, Jill & shinethelight! Between the health problems and the enormous distraction of Fuku, I haven’t been exactly setting the world on fire with published research. These are my first post-Fuku publications.

        • May be a ruff Xmas for some, please take care !

          An outbreak of severe weather, including tornadoes, threatens to ruin Christmas Day for families and communities across the Gulf Coast states. The area at greatest risk for damaging thunderstorms and tornadoes on Christmas Day stretches from southeastern Texas to the Florida Panhandle and southwestern Georgia. That zone is home to College Station and Houston, Texas, Lafayette, Baton Rouge and New Orleans, La., Jackson and Gulfport, Miss., Montgomery and Mobile, Ala., Pensacola, Fla., and Albany, Ga. AccuWeather.com meteorologists are especially concerned for the potential for loss of life with this outbreak since it will actually commence during the predawn hours of Christmas across southeastern Texas.
          http://www.accuweather.com/en/weather-news/christmas-day-severe-weather-o/3036203

              • We had some rip through here on Chrimas day a few years back, tore up Emery Riddle flying school and most all the planes about 70 ! came through town after it hit another county doing damages to MH park, I went and had a lQQky see and it was really bad, tore up top floors of apartment houses and trees down eveywhere, let me find a vidio of it, ..BRB.. K Here we are ..

                Cleanup begins after 4 Florida tornadoes – K-12 Education Online …

                Dec 25, 2006 … DAYTONA BEACH, Fla. (AP) — Four Christmas Day tornadoes damaged hundreds of Florida homes, with one flipping airplanes at a flight …
                http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/weather/stormcenter/2006-12-25-florida-storms_x.htm?csp=34&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+usatoday-NewsTopStories+(News+-+Top+Stories) and

                http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhsAdOXiZtg

                http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oah8YyXxzo8

                http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhsAdOXiZtg

              • ** SEVERE WEATHER UPDATE FOR DELTA/ CENTRAL GULF COAST

                I dont think I have ever seen such a HIGH % of severe wx in late DEC… This is really bad . Think about… by the morning of DEC 26 some folks in LA AL MS are going to have their families ruined … lost loved ones and destroyed homes

                https://www.facebook.com/WxRisk

                • Weather goes haywire over Europe: scientists baffled by erratic swings of jet stream

                  December 25, 2012 – CLIMATE – From deadly cold in Russia, floods in Britain and balmy conditions that have residents in southwest France rummaging for their bathing suits, the weather has gone haywire across Europe in the days leading up to Christmas. The mercury in Moscow has fallen to minus 25 degrees Celsius (minus 13 degrees Fahrenheit) — unseasonably cold in a country where such chills don’t normally arrive until January or February. The cold has claimed 90 lives in Russia since mid-December and 83 in Ukraine, with eastern Eurasia in the grips of an unusually icy month that has seen temperatures drop to as low as minus 50 degrees C in eastern Siberia. Another 57 people have died from the cold in Poland this month, and officials say the icy front is probably “the most severe of the last 70 years,” … more …
                  http://theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com/2012/12/25/weather-goes-haywire-over-europe-scientists-baffled-by-erratic-swings-of-jet-stream/

                • Christmas tornadoes past

                  Posted: Dec 25, 2012 8:02 PM EST Updated: Dec 25, 2012 8:02 PM EST

                  By The Associated Press

                  From the National Weather Service in Washington, DC

                  Notable U.S. tornado events with at least one F2 (minimum 113-mph) tornado between Dec. 24 and Dec. 26:

                  Dec. 24-25, 1964: 14 tornadoes (3 of them F3), Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia. Two deaths in Georgia; about 30 people injured.

                  Dec. 25, 1969: 12 tornadoes (two F3) in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana One death in Louisiana, 17 injuries.

                  Dec. 25-26, 1973: 7 tornadoes, 2 of them F2, in Alabama, Florida, Georgia. Two injuries.

                  Dec. 24, 1975: 3 tornadoes (one F3) in Texas and Florida. No injuries or deaths.

                  Dec. 24-25, 1977: 3 tornadoes (1 F3) in Mississippi and Florida. Seven injuries.

                  Dec. 24-26, 1982: 29 tornadoes (one F4, two F3), in Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi. Three deaths in Arkansas and Missouri; 32 injuries.

                  Dec. 24, 1988; 1 tornado (F4) in Tennessee. One death; seven injuries.

                  Dec. 24, 1997: 3 tornadoes (one F2) in Alabama. Five injured.

                  Dec. 25, 2006: 6 tornadoes (four F2) in Georgia and Florida. 14 injured.

                  Dec. 24, 2009: 22 tornadoes (three F2) in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi. Four injured.

                  Other statistics:

                  Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida are the most likely states to have tornado events around this time of year.

                  The last time a number of tornadoes impacted the Gulf Coast area around Christmas Day was in 2009, when 22 tornadoes occurred during the morning of December 24th.

                  In over 60 years there have been two EF4-rated tornadoes on Christmas Eve, one in 1982 in Arkansas, the other in 1988 in Tennessee.

                  The last killer tornado around Christmas was a Christmas Eve F4 in Tennessee in 1988, killing one person and injuring 7.
                  http://www.klfy.com/story/20423295/christmas-tornadoes-past

  8. Plantwatch: Juniper at risk from fungus-like disease
    The juniper has declined steadily over the past few decades and now faces a new threat

    But now the juniper is coming under a new threat from a fungus-like disease recently discovered attacking specimens of the tree in Scotland and England. The disease is fatal, and it is feared could eventually wipe out the tree across Britain.

    http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/dec/21/plantwatch-juniper-at-risk-fungus

  9. James Hutton Institute warns potato famine fungus ‘still dangerous’

    Potato blight infects leaves, stems and tubers and devastates crops
    A study by scientists at the James Hutton Institute in Dundee has warned the organism responsible for the Irish potato famine is still a major threat.
    Researchers have said new strains of Phytophtora infestans were a particular threat to farming in Africa and Asia.
    The study’s leader Dr David Cooke found modern forms of the pathogen are increasingly difficult to manage.
    The team said the results showed the need for strategies to protect potatoes from disease.
    Phytophtora infestans is a fungus like organism that causes late blight in potatoes. It infects leaves, stems and tubers and can cause devastating crop losses.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-tayside-central-20819496

    • Kawauchi Mayor Yuko Endo: Well we will make sure decontamination is safe every step of the way. Even when it rains, I promise you nothing will seep out.

      Resident: I don’t believe in promises. Mr. Mayor you can’t promise me anything. We agreed to the nuclear plant after Tepco promised it would be safe. Look at what happened. Not even 40 years after it was built, the plant spewed out something invisible across Japan. Don’t you dare make promises.

      Endo: Well safety will be our top priority while we proceed with the work to be sure the nuclear accident…

      Resident: Enough already. I don’t want to listen anymore. You’re wasting my time.

  10. Fungi, the Rodney Dangerfield of Biofuels
    By JIM LANE, Editor & Publisher, Biofuels Digest
    Bacteria, algae, yeast — there’s so much development around these platforms that sometimes we wonder if that’s how San Francisco and environs became known as the BAY area.
    BAY projects — in so many ways, dominate the BAY Area. Amyris with its exotic yeasts; Solazyme with its superfine heterotrophic algae, LS9 with its magic modified E. coli bacteria. All of them making an array of …
    http://www.chem.info/Community/Blogs/CHEM-Blog/Alternative-Energy-Fungi-the-Rodney-Dangerfield-of-Biofuels

  11. …That’s bad news for the agricultural industry, which suffers annual losses of more than $190 million due to aspergillus. Last year the green-black mold contaminated more than half the corn harvested in Missouri by October. In contrast, only 8 percent of the 2011 crop suffered, according to the Missouri Grain Inspection Service.
    “We have a big aflatoxin problem,” says Charles Woloshuk, a botanist and plant pathologist at Purdue University. “There are loads of corn coming to the [grain] elevators that have been rejected.”…

    Although the international community has adopted strict legislation to regulate the acceptable amount of aflatoxin for individual countries, cases of poisoning, called aflatoxicosis, still surface regularly. Because the level of aflatoxins found in any given load of corn can be higher than the legal maximum, farmers are allowed to mix contaminated corn with safe corn to dilute the amount —but sometimes contaminants slip through the cracks.

    http://news.yahoo.com/fortified-global-warming-deadly-fungus-poisons-corn-crops-172000380.html

    In other words, a “safe” amount of aflatoxin is allowed in corn. They do the same thing as in Japan, they mix contaminated with uncontaminated.

  12. BOSTON (AP) Wednesday, February 6, 2013
    — State officials have ordered 11 pharmacies to completely or partially shut down their operations after a series of unannounced inspections prompted by a deadly nationwide outbreak of fungal meningitis.

    The Department of Public Health inspections were conducted across the state over the past several months at 40 sterile compounding pharmacies, which custom-mix solutions, creams and other medications in doses or forms that generally aren’t commercially available. …

    http://www.chem.info/News/2013/02/Plant-Operations-Pharmacies-Ordered-to-Shut-Down-after-Inspections

  13. from a bee keeper in Wa.

    EmiKami
    Join Date: May 2012 Location: Seattle, WA Posts: 26

    Mold on the frames & dead bees

    Hello. It’s been a while since I checked my hives. I lost one last fall and the second one is surviving. I have not seen the queen yet.
    I checked my hive today and I was happy to see that there were bees on frames and buzzing out and in. However, many frames had mold and some dead bees were covered with mold. My question is – is it ok to leave the molded frames for bees to deal with ? Do I need to deal with the mold now? I am getting a new package with a new queen next month. I wonder if they can survive without the queen until then. There were plenty of honey in the hive but weak or virtually none brooding. Thank you for your advise!

    http://www.beesource.com/forums/showthread.php?278794-Mold-on-the-frames-amp-dead-bees&p=903314

  14. Amount of the Carbon Sequestered in Soil

    Falling leaves and branches are important, but roots and their fungi win out

    A forest floor can store lots of atmospheric carbon, helping to limit global warming that results from carbon dioxide emissions. Most of that storage, scientists have thought, is found in tree leaves and branches that absorb carbon, eventually fall to the ground and slowly decay into soil. A new study in Sweden, however, indicates that 50 to 70 percent of the carbon bound in soil is actually from tree roots and the fungi that grow on them.
    This surprising insight comes from …
    http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=root-fungus-stores-a-surprising

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