There is a controversy currently raging in the Fuku community about spent fuel pool #4. Tepco and the Japanese government claim to begun removing fuel rods from the Unit 4 SFP, and have released photos of a nice clean spiffy pool, enclosed in a recently constructed building exterior, that has apparently suffered little damage. Warnings have been issued by Harvey Wasserman, Arnie Gundersen and others about the dangers involved in the removal of these rods, especially if they have suffered damage. Dire scenarios about the fate of the northern hemisphere have been talked about.
The other faction claims that the FOIA documents and news reports from the time talk about a fire in SFP#4 (and #3) starting March 15, 2011 or so. This fire supposedly released all the radiation from these pools at the time, and we are now already in the dire scenario that the other side was claiming might happen.
There is a way to settle this controversy. It is by looking at the isotopic ratios of cesium isotopes that were measured in the soil and air at the time, that is, the ratio or cesium-136 to cesium-137 in these samples.
Caesium-136 has a half-life of 13.16 days. It is produced both directly (at a very small yield because 136Xe is stable) as a fission product and via neutron capture from long-lived Cs-135 (neutron capture cross section 8.702 barns), which is a common fission product. Caesium-136 is not produced via beta decay of other fission product nuclides of mass 136 since beta decay stops at stable 136Xe. It is also not produced by nuclear weapons because 135Cs is created by beta decay of original fission products only long after the nuclear explosion is over. (link)
The ORIGEN computer simulation code was used to estimate the releases of radionuclides from the 3 reactors and 4 spent fuel pools. The reactors release about 28% as much Cs-136 as Cs-137 (for a ratio of 0.28 on day zero). But the spent fuel pools release virtually no Cs-136 at all.
Table 1 shows amounts of isotopes measured at the Daiichi plant, as measured by Tepco, and available at its website. The amounts of Cs-136 were corrected for decay, and it was assumed that the radiation releases all occurred on March 11. This is a conservative assumption. Units 2 and 3 didn’t explode till later. So this is an overestimate of the amount of Cs-136 that was on hand.
Two locations close to the NPP in the northwest direction were found to be depleted in short-lived (136)Cs. This likely suggested the presence of distinct sources with different (136)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic ratios, although their details were unknown at present.
Location Cs-136/-137 ratios
Soil samples in near-zone (<80 km) 0.22
Air samples in Japan (80–2,000 km) 0.19
Air samples in Pacific Ocean and US (2,000–12,000 km) 0.22
Air samples in EU (>12,000 km) 0.20
These figures are significantly below the level of 0.28 which would have resulted if all the cesium came from the reactors. Japan had lower ratios than those in the US and Europe, which means that distant regions received a higher proportion of cesium from the reactors than Japan did. This is not surprising, since the Unit 3 reactor blew sky-high, and its contents entered into the jet stream.
Researchers at RIKEN Wako Institute in Wako, Japan (in Saitama prefecture) also conducted analysis of airborne cesium radionuclides. This attachment contains non-decay corrected measurements from Wako. I performed the decay correction back to March 11, for the non-italicized figures (study 2). The italicized ones were deemed to be unreliable.
This gives a better idea of the actual amount of Cs-136 in the reactors, which is higher on average than the figures from the ORIGEN code. Study 1 has the ratio of observed ratios to inventory ratio at 0.2075/0.31 = 66.9%, or about two-thirds of the cesium coming from the reactors, and one-third coming from the spent fuel pools. Study 2 has the ratio at 0.144/0.31 = 46.5%, or around 54% coming from the pools.
All the ratios in study 2 were below the expected value of 0.31, the ratio of reactor-only releases. A simple binomial test indicated a two-tailed P<.002, rejecting the hypothesis that all the cesium came from the reactors.
All Cs-136 measurements besides Tepco’s indicate a significant cesium release from the spent fuel pools. Since the assumptions were conservative, a range of 33%-60% of the cesium was observed to come from the pools, depending on the location of measurement.
Of course, this does not reveal WHICH spent fuel pools were involved. The FOIA documents and photographs indicate fires in SFP#3 and #4. The other two pools may have been involved, also, but it is less clear. Since there are 4 (not 3) reactors involved, and 2 pools, we can think that maybe a similar proportion of the pools’ corium were emitted as from the reactors… maybe a little higher percentage. Since there are still underground coriums from the reactors still releasing radiation, we can say the same thing about residue from the pools. So it is unlikely that ALL the radiation was released from the pools. There is still goop left over, which is extremely radioactive… but considering the amount of cesium released from them, it is hard to imagine that these rods are still intact.
Recently 1.4 million Bq/liter of all-beta radiation (including strontium-90) was detected in groundwater near Unit 2 of the destroyed Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, a new record. Tepco, for some, reason, has not released the actual Sr-90 levels, though.
But Fukushima Diary has an entry stating that Tepco has released Sr-90 levels from groundwater near Unit 1, the sample collected Sept. 11. They found 7,500 Bq/liter of strontium-90, where 9,500 is all-beta. Strontium-90 only emits beta radiation.
It can be inferred that the main component of the increasing record beta levels is the extremely dangerous isotope strontium-90. Last March, Tepco found strontium-89 in groundwater also.
These strontium isotopes collect in bone marrow, and cause bone cancer, leukemia, and immune system damage. You can be sure that this groundwater will be entering the Pacific sooner or later.
The head of an IAEA mission to Japan has suggested that Tepco dump contaminated water into the sea.
TEPCO may consider discharging contaminated water into sea: IAEA
Noting that groundwater flowing into the complex and its reactor buildings is adding to TEPCO’s struggle to store the contaminated water in makeshift storage tanks, some of which have sprung leaks causing radioactive materials to be released into the sea, Juan Carlos Lentijo, head of the IAEA’s mission floated the idea of releasing radioactive water into the ocean.
“Controlled discharge is a regular practice in all the nuclear facilities in the world. And what we are trying to say here is to consider this as one of the options to contribute to a good balance of risks and to stabilize the facility for the long term,” Lentijo, told a news conference in Tokyo Wednesday. (link)
So they say that it’s OK because all nuclear facilities do this. Most or all of them are located on seashores, rivers, or lakes, and they utilize this water for cooling, and they also use it as a nuclear dump. The Limerick nuclear plant dumps iodine-131 into the Schuylkill river in Pennsylvania, which ends up in Philadelphia’s water supply. Water authorities then blame the radioactive iodine on peeing thyroid patients.
Tritium cannot be practically removed from the contaminated water, since it is radioactive hydrogen, which bonds with oxygen to make radioactive water.
But while TEPCO is increasing the number of storage tanks as it scrambles to contain the radioactive water within its compound, remove highly-volatile fuel assemblies and work to lower the levels of contamination in wastewater, Tanaka highlighted the fact that while highly radioactive water could be decontaminated in around seven years, the amount of water containing tritium will keep rising, topping 700,000 tons in two years.
Tritium is internationally classified as one of the least dangerous nuclear materials, but nuclear experts have repeatedly pointed out that the radionuclide is still a significant radiation hazard when inhaled, ingested via food or water, or absorbed through the skin. (link)
This is misleading. While tritium is less dangerous per becquerel than say, cesium or plutonium, that doesn’t mean it’s less dangerous. Tritium is extremely mobile in the environment. It shows up everywhere there is water. Our bodies are 70% water. Water is in the plants and foods we eat. Water vapor contains tritium… if you complain about high humidity on a hot summer day, you are breathing tritium. So we get exposed to ALL the tritium, while something like plutonium, which is phenomenally dangerous, binds tightly to soils, especially clay soils, and releases at a much slower rate. And since tritium evaporates like water, because tritiated water is water, it doesn’t stay in the ocean either, but ends up in rainfall over land.
Nuclear experts have repeatedly warned that tritium is a significant radiation hazard when inhaled, ingested via food or water, or absorbed through the skin. Environmental advocates also urge leaders to remember that the oceans must be protected from being used as dump sites for all hazardous substances, regardless of their concentration. Marine biologists taught us the link between the ocean’s health and our own. The combined message of all of these people is that the world must protect the environment and marine lives.
Tritium damages DNA and chromosomes, and will lead to increasing damage over each generation to human (and all other) genomes, which more autism and birth defects, as well as leading to cancer and autoimmune diseases.
TEPCO plans to start full-scale operation “multi-nuclide removal system (ALPS)” to remove the radioactive material of 62 species from contaminated water, but tritium with properties similar to water can not be removed. (link)
The ALPS system, which does not remove tritium, will be employed to remove other isotopes, such as strontium, cesium, and plutonium. This system was recently found to be compromised with rust and corrosion. This is to be expected with the extremely high amounts of radioactive substances this system has pumped into it. And it did not remove all the strontium-90 that went into it. Also, Iori Mochizuki from Fukushima Diary noted that there was a large amount of strontium-89 in the water, as of March 2013. Since this isotope has a half-life of 50 days, that would indicate that fission has been occurring. Sr-89 is much more energetically radioactive than Sr-90.
And the contaminated waste water from the ALPS system, where does that go? Into tanks? Nobody said anything about what they do with the waste. How much you wanna bet that they will dump that into the ocean too?
In a well on the east side of Unit 2, a record 1.3 billion becquerels per liter of all-beta radionuclides were recently found. A new record for cesium was also detected on the 4th, in seawater outside the silt fence (link).
So it appears that the radioactive dumping is well under way already.
Here is a video about what happens when you drop cesium into water. Hydrogen gas is released explosively… this would be radioactive hydrogen in this case, or tritium.
The original article used an obsolete statistical methodology, clouding the validity of the study findings. Developers of the most current statistical paradigm therefore re-examined the data using rigorous state-of-the-art research methodology. The hypothesis that was tested in the original research — that newborns who were exposed to airborne radiation had a greater risk for CG — was statistically supported for California newborns with confirmed CH. Although the finding was statistically significant (i.e., “not a fluke, chance event”), the effect was very weak (i.e., not very many newborns were affected). Therefore a second study was undertaken to determine if the best alternative hypothesis might do a better job. The second study showed that the exposure hypothesis was best.
Unfortunately, the data for all of this research are hopelessly contaminated by a statistical anomaly called Simpson’s paradox, a type of ecological fallacy, which casts all of these findings into question. Although there is no way to prevent this confounding with the current data, the authors point out this may be fixed if radiation data and CH data are collected on a weekly or monthly basis in the future.
The CH data had different underlying statistical structures, and combining them may generate spurious results due to paradoxical confounding. And 2012 radiation data was combined with pre-Fukushima data, without explanation, even though a global radiation catastrophe occurred in between these disjoint time periods.
The authors conclude that the present findings require confirmation using non-contaminated data, but suggest that this avenue of investigation is warranted — reminding all to be mindful that the nuclear disaster in Japan is still unfolding, and to recall that the first articles on AIDS consisted of collections of a handful of case reports.
Online ratings of fibroyalgia symptom severity were gathered by the Fibromyalgia Wellness Project (link), for the period October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2010. The symptoms rated included pain, stiffness, fatigue, mental focus impairment, memory impairment, anxiety, depression, gastrointestinal problems, and sleeping problems. Each symptom was rated on a scale of 0 to 10, with 10 being most severe.
Gross beta radiation levels, as measured by air filters (link), were obtained from the EPA Radnet site, for the time period and nearest location of each rater and her rating. The radiation levels were computed by attributing the levels for each collection period to the day included in this period, and averaged over the prior 5 days, including the day of the rating. Kendall’s tau-b was employed to yield correlations between symptom ratings and beta radiation levels.
A power analysis revealed that 67 ratings were needed to supply enough statistical power for the analysis. 17 female subjects were selected according to this criterion. In all, 1,961 ratings were analyzed.
A multisample permutation method was employed to perform an effect strength meta-analysis, where each subject was considered to be an independent experiment. The effect strength criterion was the value of tau multiplied by the square root of the sample size for each subject, and summed together. This method generated 25,000 Monte Carlo iterations, and a P-value was estimated for each symptom.
The 26th, TEPCO announced from observation wells located on the sea side of the 1-4 Unit Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, radioactive materials that emit beta radiation, such as strontium-90 has been 910 000 becquerels detected per liter. Was taken in the 25th, I went up from 750,000 becquerels of collecting the 21st. In the well of the primary sea side, in excess of the 900,000 becquerels, which is detected in early July in another well, it was a record high.
Very high readings were also measured in a trench on the sea side of Unit 2.
In The US, very high readings from rain were measured in Arkansas on Nov. 22. This is near the record high for this observer. This looks to be at least 18 times background. (Radiation in rain typically never exceeds 2-3 times background in high radon areas.)
Michael Collins from EnviroReporter.com measured 31.5x background in rain at Death Valley, California on Nov. 23:
Winter Storm Boreas – 31.5 x background 11-23-13
Milwaukee, Wisconsin had radiation in rain at 30x background on Nov. 17:
Radiation in Rain Milwaukee 11 17 13, 310cpm or 30 TIMES normal!!
This report from Sierraville, California, is hard to make out as to the units used, but it appears to be 120x background… and it is from AIR, not rain:
Fukushima Air Radiation Spike?
Here we see the black substance on mutated apples in Michigan, which apparently came from rain:
Black Substance On Mutated Apples Came From RAIN! -Michigan
And iodine-131 in Chiba prefecture, Japan has started to rise again, after it peaked in late August and September. The last reading is actually from Nov. 6:
In the early morning of March 1, 1954, residents of Adelaide, Australia were awakened to a violent shaking in their beds. When they went outside, they saw a brilliant glow in the east. The United States had just set off the Castle Bravo nuclear bomb on Bikini Island, 3,600 miles away.
On March 1, 1954, the detonation of an estimated 15 megaton thermonuclear weapon, known as “Bravo” took place – as part of the “Castle” test series. According to the U.S. Radiochemistry Society, “the Bravo test created the worst radiological disaster in US history [Emphasis added]….the yield of Bravo dramatically exceeded predictions, being about 2.5 times higher than the best guess and almost double the estimated maximum possible yield (6 Mt predicted, estimated yield range 4-8 Mt).” The bomb was over 1000 times more powerful than those exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The Bravo crater in the atoll reef had a diameter of 6,510 ft, with a depth of 250 ft. The cloud top rose and peaked at 130,000 feet (almost 40 km) after only six minutes. Eight minutes after the test the cloud had reached its full dimensions with a diameter of 100 km, a stem 7 km thick, and a cloud bottom rising above 55,000 feet (16.5 km), and after 10 minutes had a diameter of more than 60 miles.
Intense radioactive fallout from the cloud was carried eastward and severely contaminated a Japanese commercial fishing boat and the atolls of Rongelap, Alinginea, Rongerik, and Utirik, some 200 miles away. About five hours after detonation, fallout began to deposit on the Rongelap Atoll. The fallout was so heavy that the Rongelap people, who had never seen snow, thought it was snowing. Children played in the radioactive powder, and no warning was issued by the JTF. “We saw a flash of lightening in the west like a second sun rising, “Anjain said in 1980. “We heard a loud explosion and within minutes the ground began to shake. A few hours later radioactive fallout began to drop on the people, into drinking water, and on the food. The children played in the colorful ash. They did not know what it was and many erupted on their arms and faces.” (link)
The radioactive fallout from Bravo covered the planet, including the Southern Hemisphere. It was a fission-fusion-fission bomb, designed to release high levels of radioactivity. Its yield was 15 megatons, but it released almost seven times as much radiation than the Russian Tsar Bomba, which had a yield of 50 megatons.
The detonation took place at 06:45 on March 1, 1954 local time (18:45 on February 28 GMT). This would be a 3:45 AM local time in Adelaide. Officially, the quake occurred a 3:40 AM in Adelaide. But police recorded a tremor at 3:45. At any rate, witnesses observed a flash and glow in the east, before or simultaneously with a thunderous roar and the quake. This earthquake did not result in the loss of life, but was among the worst that South Australia had ever experienced up to then.
The 1954 earthquake was without doubt one of the worst in South Australian history. Whether it was as severe as those of 1897 and 1902 none can say conclusively. Certainly no single locality in 1954 suffered the terror of Kingston (1897) over such a long period of time. On the other hand few south easterners in 1897 lost as much as did the Tillers, the Wakefields, and the other stricken Darlington folk in 1954.
Reports of a brilliant flash in the sky a few moments before the shock, came from a number of sources. These too were referred to the weather bureau which handled them politely but firmly. The only explanation it could give was that perhaps a meteorite had flashed across the sky. No reports of anything like this had come from usually reliable sources. It was not usual, the bureau explained, for earthquakes to be accompanied by flashes. (link)
The Adelaide Advertiser is available online for 1954 and contains much information about this event. Early on, nobody knew that a nuclear bomb had been detonated.
The loud noise heard at Rongelap Island was also heard 3,600 miles away at Adelaide.
(March 2) Noise “Like Train At High Speed”
Heralded in many centres by a roar like a train travelling at high speed, yesterday’s earthquake caused minor damage over a large area of the State, extending from the Upper North to the Lower South East, and from Lower Eyre Peninsula to Upper Murray districts. Lasting from 10 to 20 seconds in most places, the earthquake shook houses and rattled windows, doors and crockery.
Many homes were cracked, tanks sprang leaks, clocks stopped and pictures were left askew on walls.
The tremor was brief, he said, but with a roar like thunder it awoke all the townspeople.
Murray Bridge: a milk vendor reported a brilliant flash and many lights like falling stars (could have been a transformer fuse); the road seemed to billow and he could see plainly houses on either side of street moving; there was a roar like thunder.
Burra: reports of a yellow light turning to bright orange in south eastern sky.
It was not known at this time, but it was revealed a few days later that the US had set off a thermonuclear detonation at Bikini Island.
(March 2) Great Rock Layers ‘Slipped’ Says Noted Geologist
South Australia had experienced a minor earthquake — probably the worst ever recorded in the state, Sir Douglas Mawson, former Professor of Geology and Mineralogy at the University of Adelaide, said yesterday. It had been caused by the slipping of one great rock layer on to another along the “fault line” which extended southward from the Flinders Ranges, he added.
Sir Douglas Mawson said he did not think there was anything in reports that a brilliant flash had occurred at the same time as the earthquake.
A flash would indicate a meteorite, he said, and a lot more would have been heard about it if one had fallen. It was not usual for earthquakes to be accompanied by a flash of light.
(March 5) To The Editor
Sir— Sir Douglas Mawson is reported to have said:— ‘He did not think there was anything in reports that a brilliant flash had occurred at the same time as the earthquake.’
There are many happening today which are puzzling scientists and the public. There have been many theories and many of these have been ridiculed. I think in most instances man does not want to admit that there is a Power greater than himself which rules the universe.
(Mrs.) CONSTANCE TALBOTT. Fashoda street, Hyde Park.
(March 6) To The Editor
Sir— The cold physical explanation of the recent earthquake given by geologists will do little to quell the fears and anxieties of people who were shocked by it.
An earthquake is an act of God and has special spiritual significance in these days, for Christ clearly tells us in Matthew 24.7 that it is to be regarded as a warning of impending doom and judgment of the world.
A. H. CHENEY. Pembroke place, Colonel Light Gardens.
The 3/11 earthquake was also, obviously, an omen of impending doom.
A strange whirlwind passed through some areas several hours after the earthquake.
(March 2) Kersbrook, March 1.
A whirlwind played havoc at Kersbrook about 1 PM today.
In five minutes on the property of Messrs. F. Walsh and E. McKay, the whirlwind uprooted bushes, lifted a calf several feet off the ground, scattered bales of hay for yards and tossed a clothes hoist into a nearby creek.
Clothes on the line were blown 100 feet into the air and scattered over neighboring properties several hundred yards away.
Mr. Walsh and an employee were working at a sawbench in a shed when they heard the whirlwind approaching. They left the shed and saw the roof plucked off and then drop back in place again.
(March 8) To The Editor
Sir — The idea that the earthquake was caused by blasting in quarries is, in my view, ridiculous. It has been announced that the first of a series of tests with the atomic and hydrogen bombs has been carried out in the Pacific, which practically corresponds with the earthquake.
It is high time that scientists who are blasting and shaking our earth to pieces woke up to themselves before it is too late.
C. R. GOODWIN. Eighth avenue, St. Peters.
(March 31) While I am in no position to argue with scientists over the relative time of our earthquake and the release of the bomb, I do know that we here saw that bright glow in the northeastern sky when we ventured out after our disturbance had subsided.
I saw it myself, and know it to be no figment of the imagination.
If the flash of the explosion itself could be seen 800 miles away, then I think the reflection could be seen here.
N. M. AUSTIN. Myrtle Ban
(April 3) Glow In Sky
From ‘Interested,” Macclesfield: The suggestion that a flash from high tension wires caused the radiant glow in the eastern sky on March 1 is not the explanation. The glow, resembling a crimson curtain hung in front of a full moon, was visible before the sound of the quake began. After the quake had passed a slight glow still remained.
Strange changes in weather were noted at the time. Recently we have seen the greatest typhoon ever recorded hit the Philippines.
(April 3) H-Bomb And Weather
To the Editor
Sir- I thank Dame Enid Lyons for her article on the H-bomb (14/3/54). I prefer to take her views on the serious consequences of the explosions on Bikini than those of the scientists, for clever as they are, they mostly have a one track mind, and cannot see the effects it will have on other walks of life.
Ever since the first explosion on Bikini I have watched the gradual alteration in weather conditions, and I am convinced that if the tests are continued the primary producer will not be able to grow enough food to feed the people of Australia let alone for export…
(March 25) Professor Marcus Oliphant said in Melbourne today that it would be foolish for the world to panic about the hydrogen bomb and its after-effects…
There would be no danger to Australia from tests of these ‘monsters’ in the Pacific unless the Americans made ‘scientifically impossible’ mistakes in the handling of them. In view of the apparent mistake made during the recent test, the Americans were certain to be 100 p.c. careful in the future.
‘Man can control anything if he wants to,’ Prof. Oliphant said. (emphasis mine)
(March 26) To The Editor
Sir.— In connection with Professor Marcus Oliphant’s consoling statement about the needlessness of worrying about the hydrogen bomb explosion, we would be pleased to know either from him or a fellow scientist, what was the actual time of the March 1 explosion and, if it should be approximately the same time as our earthquake, what explanation would he like to offer about this remarkable coincidence.
“COMMON MAN.” Hindmarsh.
(March 29) HYDROGEN BOMB
To the Editor
Sir- As an example of scientific self-conceit, Professor Oliphant’s statement in the Advertiser (25/3/54) would be hard to beat. He says: ‘We need not panic about the hydrogen bomb to be exploded next month, because it will be scientifically impossible for the experts to make a mistake, because of the care they will take.’
In that case we are entitled to ask why scientific mistakes did occur in the March explosion. Was it because sufficient care was not taken, or because it was impossible for even the great scientist to know the full result of his childlike meddling with the Universe.
As for being able to control everything I suggest that they make a start by trying to control their desire to control everything.
M. A. BLAKE. 4th avenue, Klemzig.
(March 20) Quake Link With H-Bomb ‘Possible’
It was possible, but extremely unlikely, that Adelaide’s earthquake on March 1 was ‘triggered-off’ by the hydrogen bomb explosion at Bikini on the same day, the Professor of Physics at the University of Adelaide (Professor L G. H. Huxley) said yesterday…
However, if it could be established that the bomb were exploded shortly before 6 a.m. (Bikini time), the possi bility that the explosion triggered-off the ‘quake should be examined.
The shock of an H-bomb explosion at this time would have reached Adelaide at approximately the moment the earthquake began. Professor Huxley’s calculation allowed one hour for the shock to travel 3,600 miles from Bikini to Adelaide.
Certainly, the shock wave from Bravo could not have arrived as soon as the flash and earthquake occurred. The cause must have been electromagnetic energy, which travels almost at the speed of light.
An electromagnetic pulse is a burst of electromagnetic radiation. Nuclear explosions create a characteristic pulse of electromagnetic radiation called a Nuclear EMP or NEMP…
The resulting rapidly changing electric fields and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. The specific characteristics any particular nuclear EMP event vary according to a number of factors. The greatest of these factors is the altitude of the detonation. (link)
———— Evidence Mounts for Electromagnetic Earthquake Precursors
Scientists at the AGU meeting Thursday argued whether a particularly dramatic electromagnetic alarm preceded the 7.1-magnitude Loma Prieta earthquake of October 1989, which devastated parts of the San Francisco Bay Area. Antony Fraser-Smith, now an emeritus professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University, detected the signal.
According to Fraser-Smith, the 1989 signal began from an unknown source up to two weeks before the Loma Prieta quake. The signal peaked sharply a few hours before the quake struck…
David Culp, now a senior at Purdue, presented evidence he gathered as an undergraduate intern in the Stanford Department of Geophysics in the summer of 2007 that Fraser-Smith’s 1989 detection. He emphasized the dramatic spike in electromagnetic intensity hours before the quake. Efforts to explain the signal via nonquake mechanisms are “entirely implausible,” Culp said. (link)
———— Sparks that signal the shock
David Hambling on the current thinking on electricity and earthquakes
A surge of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation, known as a precursor signal, is sometimes detected before an earthquake. These can show up in unexpected ways. When the radiographer Mike Grayson was carrying out a CAT scan in Newcastle, New South Wales, he noticed unusual streaks appearing on the image.
Seventeen minutes later, the city was struck by a major earthquake. The occupants of the hospital were unharmed, though parts of it, including the scanning room, were demolished. Grayson said afterwards: “If I ever see that image again I’d be the first out of the building.”…
The Soviets set out to map the conductivity of the earth’s crust in an area of seismic activity in Tajikistan. Their experiments, carried out in the 1970s, involved firing massive charges of electricity into the earth. There were tremors but nobody paid much attention. In 1993, Nikolai Tarasov of the institute of earth physics in Moscow analysed data from the trials and found something remarkable.
The electromagnetic pulses from the experiment were followed by tremors, each one releasing up to a million times as much energy as the pulse that preceded it. Tarasov went on to look at the results of similar experiments carried out at Tien Shan in the 1980s, and found that two-thirds were also followed by tremors. Tarasov is now part of a team being funded by the EU to investigate how electricity can cause earthquakes…
There is no guarantee that instead of a small tremor, an earthquake machine would not set off the apocalyptic Big One along the San Andreas fault. There are also implications for nuclear testing. Geologists used to claim that nuclear tests could not be linked to earthquakes because the energy levels were comparatively low.
However, a nuclear explosion generates an intense electromagnetic pulse – possibly powerful enough to trigger an earthquake. This might encourage politicians to shelve plans to resume nuclear testing. We have the technology to trigger earthquakes, even if we do not fully understand the process. Whether this knowledge can be used constructively remains to be seen. (link)
Earths Many Voices a Unified Theory for Pre-Earthquake Signals
Earths Many Voices a Unified Theory for Pre-Earthquake Signals
The electromagnetic pulse and ionization of the atmosphere resulting from the high-yield nuclear bomb Bravo was clearly associated with Adelaide earthquake. HAARP is thought to create these electromagnetic signatures. We already know that a nuclear bomb can cause earthquakes, because this has happened before. Thus it is possible that the deadly Japanese earthquake and tsunami of 3/11/2011, and the resulting Fukushima nuclear catastrophe, were a result of a premeditated crime, committed by parties unknown.
Scientist Leuren Moret – Japan earthquake and nuclear “accident” are tectonic nuclear warfare
Scientist Leuren Moret – Japan earthquake and nuclear "accident" are tectonic nuclear warfare.m4v
The other side of the coin, the obverse, is that Fukushima radiation may itself be affecting the ionosphere and atmosphere, and affecting the physical integrity of the Earth itself. This will be covered in later installments, along with the amount of radiation emitted by Bravo, why the US detonated it, and what post-Bravo phenomena tell us about how much radiation is covering the Earth now.
The 5th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Radiochemistry was held Sept. 22-27 in Kanazawa, Japan. The pdf consists of poster sessions. These are presentations at a conference, with some printed graphics on a bulletin board. I gave one of these once. You stand there and conference participants ask you questions. They are not full peer-reviewed articles, but just condensed highlights. Most of these are in arcane areas of radiochemistry, but there is quite a bit about Fukushima too.
The page numbers are the pages of the actual pdf, not the listed page numbers.
CESIUM-134 SPIKE IN SEAWATER IN NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2011
Page 57: “At 4810 m of S1, the highest 134 Cs flux was observed in early May 2011. It was notable that the maximum 134 Cs activity and relatively higher flux was observed in late November and early December 2011.”
This is 4810 meters deep in the ocean. Cesium-134 was almost 4 times higher in December 2011 than the previous maximum in May 2011. It is not from the seawater plume, note how the cesium drops off in January. It is from rainout from an atmospheric plume, starting in late October 2011. See “Secondary maximum of cesium emissions, Nov 2011 – Apr 2012″. This was 1,000 km southeast of Fukushima. The plume apparently moved to the south of Japan before turning east. Other measuring points to the north did not have this spike. This is the plume that went over the US in November, and then Europe, where the IAEA declared that the spike in iodine-131 there was from a Hungarian lab. This plume was at least in the same ballpark as March 2011. It came from Unit 2. This video is from October 22, 2011 (starting around 1:00):
“The activity ratio of 0.85 reported by TEPCO can only result from an enriched Uranium fission having occurred about 50 hours before the samples were measured or an explosive criticality which occurred 60 hours before the measurements.”
Page 256: “The tritium concentration of the precipitation in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, showed the highest annually averaged value of 74.1 Bq/L 1 in 1963, which corresponded to the year of the maximum fallout of tritium in the northern hemisphere. After the maximum, it decreased year by year for the past four or five decades, and returned to levels lower than 1 Bq/L in 2007…
It began to increase following the snow of 4:10-9:00 on 16 March, and through to a maximum peak of 15.0 Bq/L after the snow of 9:00-19:00 on 16 March…
A dramatic increase in tritium concentrations of 131.6 Bq/L and 99.9 Bq/L was observed in the rainfalls of 9:30-13:40 on 30 May and those from 21:30 on 13 June to 9:00 on 14 June in the variation patterns of tritium concentration in the precipitation of Kanazawa city, although no marked change was observed in the period from April up to the end of May. This may have been caused by the wind violently blowing down from the upper atmosphere during a storm. A large amount of tritium which had been released by hydrogen explosions from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors is considered to exist in the bulk air in the upper atmosphere.”
This tritium came from the jet stream, it did not blow over from Fukushima to the west coast of Japan at this time. It had already circled the globe. This is evidence that tritium levels in the upper atmosphere exceed those caused by the atmospheric bomb tests of the 1950′s and 1960′s.
This radioactive iodine isotope has a half-life of 15.7 million years. Page 53: “The mean isotopic ratio between Iodine-129 and Iodine-131 at the accident was estimated that 129 I/ 131 I = 26 ± 6 as of March 11 2011.”
This radioactive carbon isotope has a half-life of 5,700 years. It exists either in the form of radioactive carbon dioxide (CO2), or organically bound carbon, when it is incorporated into plant tissues and sugars. It’s a radioactive greenhouse gas. The great chemist, Linus Pauling, thought that it was a bigger threat than strontium or cesium.
Page 293: Carbon-14 and tritium were measured in Japanese sewage sludge. C-14 had an activity of 2,000 Bq/kg. This is about 3% that of tritium. But its half-life is over 400 times as long as tritium.
Page 323: “We also studied whether there were influences on 12 C/ 14 C ratios in the plants due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) occurred in March, 2011. Although there are many papers reporting the release of several nuclides, there are almost no data for 14 C…
From the above-mentioned results, 14 C in the old leaves was increased because of the influence of 14 C released by the FDNPP accident. 14 C/ 12 C ratios did not change so much, even the samples were washed. Therefore, we assume that most of 14 C were taken as gaseous forms and associated with plant tissues in the leaves.”
So C-14 is mostly in gas form. Tritium and carbon-14 will go from the ocean into the air directly. Tritium, as evaporated radioactive water – and carbon-14, which escapes the ocean like fizz from a can of Coke.
Page 239: “In this work, we report the determination of 241 Pu in environmental samples, such as litter, soil and marine sediments collected in Fukushima Prefecture after the FDNPP accident in 2011. Fig. 1 shows the results of 241 Pu activity in litter and surface soils collected in 20-30 km zone of the FDNPP, and in Cities of Mito, Kamagaya and Chiba. High activities of 241 Pu ranging from 4.5 to 34.8 mBq/g were detected in the J-Village surface soil (0-2 cm) and two litter samples. This finding of high 241 Pu activities in environmental samples after the FDNPP accidnet provided evidence of the release of Pu isotopes from the accident.”
Page 322: “Figure 1 shows correlation between 238 Pu and 137 Cs for six aliquots. The radioactivity of 238 Pu in one aliquot is clearly higher than the others, and the ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu of the former is also higher. This result suggests the existence of hot particle of Pu in that aliquot.”
So we have high levels of plutonium-241, and hot particles of plutonium-238 (which is 270 times more radioactive than the more familiar Pu-239).
Page 321: “Based on the validity of isotopic analysis, the 235 U/ 238 U ratio in the environmental samples inside the 3 km range from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was analyzed. A possibility of atmospheric release of nuclear fuel matrix during the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is discussed.”
That means corium itself was released into the atmosphere.
CESIUM IN ZOOPLANKTON
Zooplankton from areas off the shore of Japan were analyzed. Page 261: “Activity concentrations of radiocesium in zooplankton ranged from 0.1 to 9.1 Bq/kg-wet weight, and from 0.1 to 12.8 Bq/kg-wet weight for 134 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively during May 2012 to January 2013 (Fig. 1). In addition, relatively high activity concentrations of radiocesium were observed near off Ibaraki prefecture during May 2012 cruise, and near off Fukushima prefecture during January 2013 cruise (Fig. 1)…
We also estimated the zooplankton-to-water activity ratio of 137 Cs to be 20-754 L/kg; most of them are higher than the one (40 L/kg) published by the IAEA.”
Zooplankton (tiny animals) along with phytoplankton (plants) constitute the bottom of the food chain in the sea, where bioaccumulation begins. They also provide 30-50% of the oxygen on Earth.
URANIUM IN DOG FOOD
This was interesting. Scientists in Brazil tested 37 brands of dog food for uranium. It was not stated whether these were Brazilian or American brands.
Page 398: They noted that average daily uranium intake in humans ranges from 0.07 to 1.1 micrograms. The intake a 40 kg dog would consume would be as high as 2 milligrams of uranium. This is 2,000 times as much uranium as humans consume.
COMPOSITION OF THE BLACK SUBSTANCE
The samples were collected mostly from the exclusion zones.
Page 255: The road dusts, called “Black Materials”, whose color is apparently black, are browned in a corner and/or dip of residential streets and roadside by wind and rain. These materials are composed with fine aerosol particles, fine carcut asphalt materials, residue of lichens, soil and so on, and contaminated with extremely high levels of radionuclides released. They seemed to be suitable for getting information on isotopic composition of trace amount of U and transuranic elements. The samples were mainly collected from areas within the 20-km exclusion zones (Minami-Souma, Namie, Futaba and Okuma Towns) in Sep.- Nov., 2012. Also were samples taken from Iitate Village heavily contaminated…
The collected black materials samples were found to be contaminated with extremely high levels of 134 Cs and 137 Cs over 1000 kBq/kg by the FDNPP accident. More than 100 samples from areas within the 20 km-exclusion zones were determined for 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am. 242 Cm and 243,244 Cm by
alpha ray spectrometry. Furthermore, in some samples, 236 U was successfully determined by AMS.
Cesium-134 and -137, plutonium-238, -239, -240, americium-241, curium-242, -243, -244, uranium-236, are in the black dust. Curium is especially nasty. It is a neutron radiation emitter. It works on the same principle as the neutron bomb. It makes the chemical substances in human cells radioactive.
There is a new spate of emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. A new record of 550,000 Bq/liter of all-β radionuclides (including strontium-90) has been measured in groundwater near the E-1 tank.
There was an event on Nov. 3 and 4 that caused a spike of radiation in Fukushima city. An individual in Tokyo was exposed to rainwater on his feet on Nov. 7, causing itching and the skin damage seen in the photo.
Radiation spiked in Hokkaido starting Nov. 9, continuing until the 10th. Kyoto spiked on Nov. 11.
I don’t know if these are two separate events, or the same one. There have been a series of small to moderate earthquakes in Japan lately, so these spikes may be connected to that. Or it may be a new criticality. The map at netc.com is lighting up in the southwest US.
There are more radiation graphics from Japan here.
A mushroom with 430,000 Bq/kq of cesium was found in Minamisoma in October. This is higher than any the concentration of any mushroom I have read about from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The highest was 280,000 or so… generally much lower than this.
I want to include the following video, the testimony of a brave lady who evacuated from Fukushima with her children, leaving her elderly parents behind.
原発事故避難者ｍｉｋｏさんの証言 the testimony of a Fukushima Evacuee